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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 296-301

A comprehensive review on the management of ARDS among pediatric patients

1 Department of Paediatrics, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Centre, Narayana Health City, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Centre, Narayana Health City, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yashwanth Raju Hunasagahalli Nagaraju
No. 141, Kartik, Ground Floor, 13th Main, 2nd Cross, BTM Layout 1st Stage, Bengaluru - 560 068, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijrc.ijrc_158_22

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Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is a complex inflammatory syndrome of lungs leading to disruption of alveolar epithelial membrane barrier in the lungs. It includes varying age groups from infants to adolescents. PARDS definition has changed over decades as current definition is given by the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference group. Although most of management principles are extrapolated from adult data, physiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in children is different when compared to adults. The present review mainly focused on current evidence in the management of ARDS with emphasis to pediatric population. MeSH headings such as ARDS, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and lung protective ventilation were used for searching publications in PubMed, Embase, and SciELO. Publications were limited to human studies in the past 20 years. Core ventilatory strategies in PARDS include use of low-tidal volume, higher PEEP and acceptance of permissive hypercapnia and permissive hypoxemia. Supportive strategies such as restrictive fluid therapy, prone positioning, early enteral nutrition, and adequate analgosedation remain the mainstay of management of principles. As PARDS contains heterogeneous population, personalized mechanical ventilation under umbrella of lung protective ventilator strategies such as low-tidal volume ventilation, open lung strategy, acceptance of permissive hypercapnia, and permissive hypoxia is standard of care.

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